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Common automatic tool change method in CNC machining center

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Update time : 2019-09-06 12:47:37
First, the robot changes the knife

In general, machine tools equipped with robotic tool changers are usually equipped with disc magazines. So, what is a robotic tool change? As the name implies, when the machine tool needs to change the tool, the robot replaces the manual operation of the knife, the knife selection and the tool change. During the entire tool change process, the robot is responsible for transferring the tool from the tool magazine and the machining center. The tool to be used is removed from the tool magazine and mounted on the machine tool spindle, and the tool that is not needed is removed from the spindle. Tool magazine. One of the characteristics of the robot's tool change method is that the new knife and the old knife are simultaneously grasped and operated at the same time, which can greatly save time. Therefore, compared with other methods of changing the tool, the manipulator tool change has many advantages, the tool change speed is fast, and the movement amplitude of each mechanical component is small, which is also the most mainstream tool change mode.

Second, direct tool change

The direct tool change method is completed by the cooperation of the tool magazine and the headstock at the time of change. This tool change method is the most direct one. By judging whether there is displacement in the tool magazine during the tool change, we can also directly change the tool change mode into two ways, the tool magazine shift mode and the tool magazine fixing mode. For the magazine movement mode, the magazine can be moved. When the tool is changed, the magazine enters the area and exits the area after the tool change is completed. This type of tool change is more flexible and adaptable due to more operations during tool change and more requirements during layout. In the fixing method of the tool magazine, the knife selection is mainly performed by the movement of the spindle box. The magazine can be stationary or it can be rotated only in position. In the former case, the knife can only be selected according to the sorting of the tools. The numerical control machining center with a small number of props is suitable, and the latter can be used for indexing. This knife selection method reduces the movement of the tool magazine, greatly simplifies the design structure of the tool magazine, and is more simple and reliable for the control of the tool change. The direct tool change method is characterized by slow speed and high failure rate, which are currently used less frequently.

Third, the turret head change tool

The so-called turret head changer is a type of tool change that allows the tool to be used to move to the corresponding position by the rotation of the turret. Under normal circumstances, it is changed in order, the advantage is that the structure is compact, the tool change time is short, and the application is mostly in the complex processing of the elongated workpiece such as the crankshaft.

The advantages of the turret head changing method and the direct tool changing method are similar, and the turret head changing tool can be divided into two types: the turret tool change tool and the turret spindle head change tool. The tool change mode of the turret is realized by the rotation of the turret head to realize the automatic tool change; the turret spindle head tool change mode also needs to be equipped with a turret, but the turret spindle is not connected to the tool post, but Multi-directional sub-spindle heads distributed like octopus tentacles, and each spindle head also has the tools needed to install each process.

When the CNC machine is machining, by rotating the turret, each spindle head is sequentially rotated to the machining position according to the set program command, thereby achieving the purpose of automatic tool change. Since this method is to concentrate all the spindles on one turret, there is a high requirement for the rigidity of the turret spindle.